The part of a program where a variable is accessible is called its scope
a. Global variables are the ones that are defined and declared outside any function and are not specified to any function. They can be used by any part of the program
b. Local variable created inside a function belongs to the local scope of that function, and can only be used inside that function
x = 300 def myfunc1(): print(x) def myfunc2(): print(x) myfunc1() myfunc1() print(x)
#Output: 300 300 300
In the above example, variable x is accessing across all the function and main program as it declared globally
def myfunc1(): x = 300 print(x) def myfunc2(): x = 400 print(x) myfunc1() myfunc2() print(x)
#Output: 300 400 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- NameError Traceback (most recent call last)
In the above example, x in myfunc1() is accessible myfunc1() only and, x in myfunc2() is accessible myfunc2() only so, print(x) in the main program is got a NameError as there is no x variable defined in the main block
x = 30 def myfunc1(): x = 300 return x print(x) #Output: 30 print(myfunc1()) #Output: 300
In the above example, print(x) statement prints 30 because local scope of x in myfunc1 scope available to that function alone. so it picks the value from global variable x.
Scope should be accessible in the order of local scope, parent, global & python build-in functions.
x = 30 def myfunc(): x = 300 def insidefunc(): return x return insidefunc() print(x) #Output: 30 print(myfunc()) #Output: 300
In the above example, print(x) statement prints global scope variable x as there is no local and parent scopes avaiable to that place and print(myfunc()) statement prints parent scope variable as there is no local scope.
def myfunc(): def insidefunc(): return sum return insidefunc() print(myfunc()) #Output: < built-in function sum >
In the above example, print(myfunc()) statement prints python built-in function as there is no local, parent & global variable sum.
Global keyword allows you to modify the variable outside of the current scope. It is used to create a global variable and make changes to the variable in a local context.
a. When we create a variable inside a function, it is local by default.
b. When we define a variable outside of a function, it is global by default. You don't have to use global keyword.
c. We use global keyword to read and write a global variable inside a function.
d. Use of global keyword outside a function has no effect.
Let's take an example of where the global keyword requires
a = 1 #Global Variable def myfunc(): print(a) myfunc() #Output: 1
The output is 1. However, we may have some scenarios where we need to modify the global variable from inside a function.
a = 1 # global variable def mul(): a = a * 10 # multiply c by 10 print(a) mul()
def mul(): ----> a = a * 10 # multiply c by 10 print(a) UnboundLocalError: local variable 'a' referenced before assignment
This is because we can only access the global variable but cannot modify it from inside the function
Here is the solution for this is to use the global keyword.
a = 10 #global variable def mul(): global a a = a * 10 # multiply c by 10 print("Inside Func.", a) mul() print("MainBlock", a)
Inside Func. 100 MainBlock 100
In the above program, we define variable a as a global keyword inside the mul() function
Then, we multiply the variable a by 10, i.e c = c * 10. After that, we call the mul() function
Finally, we print the global variable 'a' in the main block and inside mul function
As we define the global keyword, You can see the change also occurred on the global variable outside the function, c = 100
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